modification of latitudinal controls by land and water interaction i. Europe has a long history of human development and is considered the birthplace of Western Civilization: the result of classical civilizations, Christianity, the Renaissance and Reformation, the Enlightenment, and the Industrial and Scientific Revolutions a.

Greece: philosophy, democracy, roots of science, art and architecture b.

Europe is a peninsula of the Eurasian supercontinent.

sparsely populated except in the Rhine, Rhine, Elbe and Danube river valleys d. includes ranges in the Italian and Balkan peninsulas, northern Spain, southern France …

includes the mountains of the Alps, Pyrenees, Apennines, Dinaric Alps, Balkans, Carpathians …

economic system: commitment to capitalism or market economy d. government services: education, medical and health care, retirement 8.

Europe’s culture has spread world-wide through exploration, colonization, imperialism, immigration, trade 1.

Rome: law, engineering, infrastructure (city structure, roads and aqueducts), establishment and spread of Christianity, areal functional specialization 2.

The Roman Empire’s cultural influence remains to this day: French, Spanish, Romanian and modern Italian derived from Latin, Roman fondness for wine brought vineyards to France, laid the cornerstones of many of today's modern cities (such as Paris), invested in the infrastructure that was vital for their longevity 3.

falling share of world’s population but continues to experience slow natural growth (birth rates lower than death rates; immigration prevents population loss) 2.

in last stage of Demographic Transition (or beyond): women in workforce, widespread contraception, shortage of affordable housing, some countries offer incentives to increase national growth 3. age-dependent boom and bust: A higher ratio of young dependants usually correlates with increased poverty.

east-west across central Europe and include western France and Belgium, southern Germany, the Czech Republic, parts of northern Switzerland and Austria …

lower in altitude and less rugged than the Alpine region and heavily wooded ...

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